7.0373 Computer-Assisted Research Forum Update 2.1 (1/566)

Thu, 23 Dec 1993 10:33:21 EST

Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 7, No. 0373. Thursday, 23 Dec 1993.

Date: Wed, 22 Dec 93 01:37:12 EST
From: "Todd J. B. Blayone" <CXFW@MUSICA.MCGILL.CA>
Subject: CARF UPDATE 2.1 !!!



In this UPDATE ________________________________________________________

1. About CARF (and Announcement)
2. Table of Contents (Volume 2, No. 1 - Fall/Winter 1993/94)
3. Sample Article: "Touring the Internet, Macintosh Style..."
4. From the Editor
5. Advertising Highlights
6. Coming in Future Issues
7. Publication and Subscription Information


1. About CARF _________________________________________________________

The _Computer-Assisted Research Forum_ (CARF) continues to be
an independent, non-technical bulletin for academics and
educators in the humanities (ISSN: 1195-9657). It is currently
published in hard-copy format, three times a year at McGill
University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic CARF UPDATES are posted
periodically to a number of humanities-related lists.

CARF helps humanists better utilize computers by introducing
resources, providing software and literature reviews, and
encouraging critical thinking about technology from humanistic
perspectives. CARF's assumption is that the computer literacy
and productivity of the average humanist can be greatly enhanced
through the dissemination of relevant, non-technical (!)

****** ANNOUNCEMENT ******

* *
* CARF is expanding! We are currently developing _CARF *
* ONLINE_ a *free* electronic publication that will *
* complement our subscription-only, print bulletin. *
* *
* We look forward to exploiting the unique potentialities *
* of the electronic medium as we strive to offer the *
* humanities community the best available one-stop resource *
* for reviews of software and other computer-related *
* materials. *
* *
* We plan to experiment with portable-document technologies *
* and to incorporate a number of innovative services that *
* only the electronic medium can support. At the same time, *
* we will continue to develop our hard-copy bulletin as *
* an independent information source and as a guide to *
* *
* PLEASE NOTE: We welcome (!) the participation of other *
* experienced computing humanists. Should you wish to become *
* part of this exciting project, please contact the editor *
* (Todd Blayone) cxfw@musica.mcgill.ca. *
* *

2. Table of Contents (Volume 2, No. 1 - Fall/Winter 1993/94) _________

Touring the Internet, Macintosh Style: A Review Essay............1
Universe: True Multilingual Word Processing......................6
TwinBridge: Turning Windows Japanese.............................8
Resources for Writers I: The Writer's Toolkit...................11
In Brief. Short Reviews, News and Annotations...................14
From the Editor.................................................16

3. Sample Article _____________________________________________________

"Touring the Internet, Macintosh Style: A Review Essay." By
Philip M. Howard. _CARF_ (2,1) 1-4.

IF YOU ARE A MACINTOSH USER and have friends or colleagues who
have dived into the Internet from a PC, or heaven forbid, a UNIX
platform, then you have probably heard tales of commands and
procedures more intimidating than darkest DOS. Put away your
fears! Michael Fraase's Mac Internet Tour Guide: Cruising the
Internet the Easy Way introduces the reader to Macintosh-style
networking. More than a book, Fraase's guide provides software
that replaces typed instructions with "pointing and clicking" on
(properly configured) Macintosh systems. Concerns about the
meaning and spelling of enigmatic Internet commands can be
virtually eliminated.

Play as a Learning Mechanism

The Macintosh is inherently playful. Macintosh users like to
add funny sound effects to their systems. (A system down the
hall from me ejects disks with a vomiting sound). They install
software to replace the standard arrow cursor with a cartoon of
a pointing finger or a spinning UFO. The Internet, too, has its
lighter side. For all of its importance as a system of
light-speed communications and a repository of valuable
information, it has developed a light-hearted culture. Some of
its most effective tools have names like Archie, finger, and
Gopher. The Macintosh and the Net play well together. On the
Macintosh, the Internet File Transfer Protocol (FTP), becomes
Fetch--an easy to learn program featuring an animated cursor in
the shape of a dog that sprints across the screen while files
are being downloaded.

The Internet is a complex phenomenon, so any guide must begin
by answering the question, "What is the Internet?" Here, Fraase
does not stop at the technical description of the Internet as a
network of computer networks. He describes it as having a "sense
of place" (4) that does not exist on any one local area network.
He takes the time to communicate something of the culture of the
Net: the history of its beginnings as a communications medium
between American military and academic research establishments
(designed to with stand the disruption of nuclear war); its
governance, which he describes as "consensual anarchy" (7); and
the issues of commercialization, privatization, and
bandwidth--the capacity to transmit information.

The Popularization of the Internet

Why should you use the Internet? Fraase asks us to "imagine
downloading Dante's Inferno from a computer in Massachusetts or
California, just as quickly as if we were copying a file from a
floppy disk" (1). Throughout the book, other examples illustrate
the kind of information that the Net provides. The last chapter
includes an annotated bibliography of Internet resources. These
include on-line library catalogs (like the Library of Congress),
electronic texts and magazines ("Zines," for short), weather
reports, travel advisories, the Smithsonian's photo archive, and
even White House Press Releases.

Fraase provides comprehensive instruction on the installation,
configuration, and use of almost all of the Macintosh software one
needs to access the Internet. Information on the basic network
systems which are usually installed by those who manage your
Internet connection (your computer support department or
independent Internet service provider) are omitted. Even here,
however, the author takes pains to explain how to deal with
support services. For example, he lists questions your computer
support staff may ask, together with recommended answers for you
to give. As a support specialist, I can assure you that Fraase's
suggestions are sound. In institutions with a charge-back policy,
however, you may want to add an inquiry about the relative costs
of the options on this list.

The author offers chapters on electronic mail, USENET network
news, FTP file transfer, and information browsing (with tools like
Gopher). Each chapter includes an explanation of the service,
enough technical background to understand what input is required
of the user, and step-by-step practical examples. Examples are
well illustrated with images from the Macintosh screen. The
illustrations are well chosen and instructive. Throughout the book
there are stories and anecdotes about the Net and its citizens (or
denizens) and miscellaneous resources. These are presented in
shaded sidebars with icons that distinguish between "People
profiles," "Software Reviews," "Hot spots and cool resources," and
"Found text excerpts." They make it pleasant to browse through the
book-in much the same manner as one would browse the Internet.

Fraase offers two, free electronic updates of The Mac Internet
Tour Guide--just fill in the Internet e-mail address on the card
at the back of the book. Updates are published quarterly and there
is a subscription fee if you wish to continue the service. In this
way, Fraase leads his readers into the new world of electronic

User-Friendly Software and The Visitors Center

Since I work in a basement, away from fresh air and the light
of day, the Internet has become an alternate view of the world--a
view through Macintosh windows. Fraase writes about the tools I
use every day: StuffIt, Fetch, Eudora, and others. I first heard
about these programs from other Internet users, in the days before
Internet guidebooks. I was pleased to find that the author not
only offers clear directions for their use, but that he has
included these three programs on a companion disk. I was even more
pleased to find that he maintains The Electronic Visitors Center,
a computer-software archive which houses the latest versions of
these and other interesting Macintosh programs. The Center is
accessible via the Internet.

Fetch and StuffIt Expander

Fetch and StuffIt Expander work together to transfer computer
files from the treasure troves of the Internet to your machine.
Fetch is a Macintosh implementation of the Internet File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) system. Given the network address of any
Internet-connected computer system, and a valid user name and
password for that system, Fetch will let you upload, download, and
perform file or directory maintenance. On a DOS or UNIX machine,
FTP requires you to use commands like DIR, CD, BINARY, GET, etc.
With Fetch, one has only to point and click with the

Of course, all this would be of limited use if you did not
have access to several computer systems. Fortunately, the
Internet is populated with publicly accessible computers which
permit you to log on as "anonymous." In this way you can access
countless programs and documents. The Electronic Visitors Center
is one of thousands of such systems.

Utilities Within Utilities

FTP archives can be huge-containing hundreds of files on all
types of computer systems. To save disk space, files are usually
"compressed" by special software. In addition to being
compressed, Macintosh files, which most often reside on
non-Macintosh systems, are converted to BinHex format.
Experienced Macintosh users may already be familiar with BinHex
and Stuff It, the most common pair of utilities for rendering
Macintosh files suitable for Internet transfer. StuffIt
compresses Macintosh files and BinHex converts the result into
ASCII (plain-text) form. BinHex files look like pages of random
keyboard characters. In this form, they are able to pass through
FTP and e-mail software where the original binary (program) file
would cause problems.

When Fetch downloads a file, it can tell whether it is text or
BinHex, and it will automatically convert it from BinHex form; no
separate BinHex program is required. Under System 7.x, the newer
Macintosh operating system, Fetch will automatically start up
StuffIt Expander to "decompress" the downloaded file. Those of us
still using System 6 will have to double-click on the file to tell
StuffIt Expander to decompress it. If you find all this confusing,
don t worry. Like most Macintosh software, Fetch is easier to use
than it is to describe.

Eudora, a POPular E-mail System for Your Macintosh

The third Internet utility provided on the Tour Guide's disk
is the e-mail system Eudora. Eudora is a POP mail "client" which
must be set up to work with an automated mail "server." Let me

"Client" software connects to "server" software, which does
the real work. In most cases a client is an easy-to-operate,
front-end for a more complex, server system. In the context of
e-mail systems, the client program usually includes a mail
editor with which to prepare a message. When a message is
prepared, the client sends ("uploads") it to a "mail-box" on the
server. The server functions like a Post Office. It sends out
the mail you have dropped off. Moreover, it sorts incoming mail
for you and other users. When it receives mail for you, it
places it in a "mail-box" for your client to pick up. The
client fetches the mail and delivers ("downloads") it to your
own computer system. The whole process of uploading, checking
for new mail, and downloading takes only a few moments.

Keep in mind that a client-server relationship only works if
both the client and the server "speak the same language" (adhere
to the same protocol). Eudora is a POP3 (Post Office Protocol,
Version 3) compatible mail program designed to work with POP3
mail servers. POP3 is a very common protocol which permits a
client (running on any platform) to interact with the server. As
noted above, it is the server which launches your message into
the Internet and it is the server which receives your e-mail.
The client contacts the server when mail is to be sent, or to
check for new mail. On my own Macintosh I have Eudora running in
the background (with MultiFinder), contacting our central
academic minicomputer to check for mail every thirty minutes.
When a message arrives Eudora alerts me by sounding a tone and
flashing a flag over the apple icon in the Macintosh menu bar. I
can then read and respond to the message without exiting other
programs I might be using.

In general, the Eudora client frees Macintosh users from
having to learn a "user-hostile," e-mail program on a central
computer system. It also offers a custom menu of e-mail
"nicknames" to replace long addresses or lists, and it includes
a system of nested mail folders to organize correspondence.
Finally, and most notably, Eudora features a built-in BinHex
system like the one in Fetch. This means that files that have
been sent to you in the BinHex format (e.g., word processing
documents, graphic images, or programs) can be "de-BinHexed" by
Eudora. You will not need a separate BinHex program to restore
your files. Fraase fails to mention that the popularity of
Eudora has led publishers to create a DOS/Microsoft Windows
version. Indeed, both the Macintosh and Windows versions are on
the verge of becoming commercial packages with new and enhanced

TCP/Connect II, an Integrated Package of Internet Tools

A demonstration copy of the commercial package TCP/Connect II
comes with the companion disk. It integrates the main Internet
services into one pro gram for e-mail, USENET news-reading, FTP,
and TELNET. Integration allows one, for example, to FTP a file
immediately upon reading about it in an e-mail or USENET message.
I find that the Macintosh system allows me to run Eudora and Fetch
at the same time anyway. Still, the demo version will help you
decide whether TCP/Connect II is worth the cost.

Hardware and Software Requirements

All the above software has similar hardware requirements:
"almost any Mac intosh will do" (26). Fraase recommends at least
4MB of RAM and a hard drive. If you don't have enough memory (or
disk space) for System 7, then you should use the latest version
of System 6 (Version 6.0.8) and Finder. (Note that some software
requires System 7 for full functionality.) You will also need a
network interface card, data-card or high-speed modem, de-
pending on whether you have direct access to a local
institutional network or you have a dial-in connection. If you
have direct access to a local network and need a network card,
your network administrator will help you find the right card. If
you must use a modem do not purchase anything less than a
14.4bps modem.

Some additional software (not included on the disk) is also
required. Most often this is installed and configured by the
Internet service provider, your local computer department or
commercial networking company. It is usually available at little
or no cost. Contact your local computer services for details.

Finally, Eudora requires that your site has a POP3 e-mail
server installed on one of the mainframes or minicomputer
systems. At some sites this may be a smaller system dedicated to
e-mail use. In either case, it is up to the central computer
department or commercial Internet service to install and
maintain the mail server system. If your site does not offer a
POP 3 mail service, Eudora will not work on your Macintosh.

"Go Out And Play!"

Given the anxiety with which many of us approach computer
learning, you may be delighted to find that exploring the
Internet with a Macintosh can be a fanciful romp across a
digital playground. The Macintosh Internet Tour Guide combines
clearly written instructions with entertaining anecdotes,
electronic updates, professional quality software and The
Electronic Visitors Center, to provide Macintosh users with all
that is required to explore this electronic universe. The Mac
Internet Tour Guide is Michael Fraase's twenty-second book,
"...and the first one in a long time that has been a load of
fun" (vii).

Philip Howard is a technical support analyst at Saint Mary's
University Computer Services, Halifax, NS. He is currently
developing support for electronic publishing.


The Mac Internet Tour Guide: Cruising the Internet the Easy Way.
Michael Fraase, Ventana Press, 1993. ISBN 1-56604-062-0.
Pp. xxii+282. 800K Macintosh disk.

Price: $27.95US
Address: Ventana Press
PO Box 2468
Chapel Hill, NC 27515
Phone: (919) 942-0220
Fax: (919) 942-1140
Internet: Diane Lennox (dilennox@aol.com)

Notes: Ventana Internet guides for DOS and Windows will be released
early in 1994.

4. From the Editor_____________________________________________________

I recently came across The Last Book You'll Ever Read (Ogden,
1993)--a work that trumpets, among other things, the imminent
demise of the printed page. Like other futurists, IT-empowered
technofiles and cyberspace junkies, its author fails to learn
from the past. Can we really expect electronic publications to
replace older forms of written communication immediately and
completely? After all, as the classicist Jay David Bolter

[i]n the past, even a major new technology of materials or
power has seldom done away with its predecessor entirely.
Instead one technology relegates another to subservience, to
tasks at which the new technology is either inappropriate or
uneconomical. The invention of iron did not eliminate bronze
tools, which were cheaper and easier to make, nor did
effective windmills and waterwheels eliminate the use of
harnessed animals, since there was no convenient way to pull a
cart over land with wind or water power. The steam engine, the
internal combustion engine, and now the nuclear reactor are
unlikely to replace the workman using nothing more
sophisticated than a dolly to get a heavy load up a short
flight of stairs (Bolter, 1989).

Why will The Last Book You'll Ever Read not be the last book
you'll ever read? A well-rounded, but not exhaustive, reply can
be reduced to five words: usability, portability, readability,
accessibility and bibliophilia. When booting up a computer,
troubleshooting software, logging onto a remote archive, and
wrestling with menus becomes effortless; when reading an
electronic device on the subway becomes convenient and dropping
the same device on the floor inconsequential; when very
high-resolution electronic displays become affordable and
software-based navigation tools simple and efficient; when
electronic reading devices and remote textual archives become
as accessible to the masses as a cheap paperback; when everyone
who has ever been enchanted by the smell and feel of inked
paper ceases to exist, or when VR technology can provide these
individuals with a virtual "traditional" reading experience--
only then, I suspect, will we witness the last gasps of the
the printed page.

Before I am misconstrued as representing the Luddites of this
world, I must point out that there are some good reasons for
hastening the demise of the printed page. For example, print
publication is extremely expensive and the typical long delays
between submission of a piece and its publication is self
defeating; our natural resources are diminishing; international
computer networks are growing and becoming widely accessible;
and, the electronic medium presents exciting new ways of
authoring, accessing, augmenting and manipulating textual data.

The relevance of this discussion is that through a series of
promising new alliances, we are developing an electronic version
of CARF. Our approach will be to superimpose the electronic
version onto the print version, not to discontinue production of
the latter. In this way, we hope to enjoy the best of both worlds.
On the one hand, the electronic medium will allow us to diseminate
more information at a faster pace, and it will provide an
interactive forum for our readers. On the other hand, the printed
version, drawing from a deeper reservoir of material, will
continue to present information in a usable, portable, readable,
accessible and bibliophilic manner. (An official announcement will
appear in the next issue.)

Bolter, Jay David. 1989. The computer as a defining technology.
In Computers in the Human Context: Information Technology,
Productivity and People, ed. Tom Forester, 36. Oxford: Basil

Ogden, Frank. 1993. The Last Book You'll Ever Read. Toronto:
Macfarlane, Walter and Ross.

5. Advertising Highlights _____________________________________________

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year 1000 AD to the present.
Clockwork Software .......................... clockwk@delphi.com


The fastest and most productive Windows Bible research software.
Hermeneutika ...................................... (206) 824-WORD

*** CINDEX 5.1 for DOS ***

The best index management software available. Macintosh and Windows
versions available in 1994.
Indexing Research ................................. (716) 461-5530

*** Folio VIEWS 3.0 for DOS, Windows and Macintosh ***

"A revolutionary step forward in the electronic management of
information..." (Windows Magazine, August 1993).
Libraxus, Inc....................................... (613) 567-2484

6. Coming in Future Issues_____________________________________________

*Writer's Tools II: English Dictionaries for Macs and PCs
*Bibligraphic Programs Revisited
*Cyrillic Keyboard for Windows
*Greek/Hebrew Font Utilities for Windows
*Mosaic: Hypermedia Networking
*Oxford OED on CD
*Electronic Publication I: Portable Document Software
*Word Processing Alternatives for Humanists: Nisus/Mac and Nota Bene/DOS

*Informative articles, literature reviews, networking tips and tricks
and much more...

7. Publication and Subscription Information ___________________________

Publisher/Editor: Todd J. B. Blayone, McGill University

Editorial Advisors: Bruce Guenther, McGill University
Harry Hahne, Ontario Theological Seminary
Richard P. Hayes, McGill University
Philip Howard, St. Mary s University
Karla Saari Kitalong, Michigan Tech. University
C. Robert Phillips, Lehigh University
David J. Reimer, Regent s College Park, Oxford
Stephen B. Scharper, McGill University
William Dubie, Digital Equipment Corporation

Subscription Information:

Annual Rates. $17.00Cdn or $15.00US (institutional); $12.00Cdn
or $10.00US (individual). Outside Canada and the US (individuals
and institutions) add $8.00Cdn or $7.00US. Single issues or back
issues: please inquire. Make check or money order payable, in
Canadian or US funds, to the Computer-Assisted Research Forum.
Send to: Computer-Assisted Research Forum, c/o Todd Blayone, Birks
Building, McGill University, 3520 University Street, Montreal, PQ,
H3A 2A7, Canada. (CARF can be reached electronically at
cxfw@musica.mcgill. ca.)

**A limited number of sample copies are available.***


Reproduction of material appearing in the Computer-Assisted
Research Forum and CARF UPDATES is welcome with our written


Product reviews are based on independent first-hand evaluations
Manuscript submissions, review queries and comments are welcome.
Where citations are essential, they should follow Turabian's
"Citation I/Parenthetical Reference" style. See Kate L.
Turabian, A Manual for Writers, 5th ed. (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1982) 111.


CARF is currently received by individuals and institutions in
ten countries and at more than 200 post-secondary institutions.
Library subscriptions include:

Drew University
Harvard College
St. Cloud University
University of Nebraska
University of Iowa
University of Utah
University of Washington
Indiana University
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Bishop's University
University of Calgary
University of New Brunswick
University of Windsor
York University
University of Hong Kong
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Universite Jean Moulin, France
University of Innsbruck
Humanities Comp. Centre, Oxford
Conrad Grebel College
Eastern Pentecostal Bible College
Keyano College
Trinity College
Mount Carmel Bible School
Salvation Army Training College



Copyright 1993 by the Computer-Assisted Research Forum. All rights
reserved. ISSN: 1195-9657.