11.0535 history of hypertext (& of the book)

Humanist Discussion Group (humanist@kcl.ac.uk)
Fri, 23 Jan 1998 21:01:03 +0000 (GMT)

Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 11, No. 535.
Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London

[1] From: Hartmut Krech <kr538@alf.zfn.uni-bremen.de> (30)
Subject: History of hypertext

[2] From: "James W. Johnston" <johnston@wordcruncher.com> (14)
Subject: Interesting News on the WordCruncher Horizon ...

Date: Wed, 21 Jan 1998 10:05:18 +0100
From: Hartmut Krech <kr538@alf.zfn.uni-bremen.de>

Re.: History of hypertext (was: history of the book)

In reply to James Johnston's query, let me add two cents from
my own reading --

(1) Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) is said to have been (one of) the
first to have added "footnotes" (or "endnotes" ?) to his texts.
This information appears unreliable to me and would need further
verification. If Bayle did make use of footnotes in an appreciable
manner, his influence upon enlightenment literary culture would
have been without compare.

(2) Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768), one of the founders of
modern art history, writes in his "Versuch einer Allegorie, besonders
fuer die Kunst" (Dresden, 1766):
"Among the Greeks [...] science was wrapped up in pictorial language,
which is meant by the word hypographein <u(pogra/fein>." (1766, p. 7,
my translation).
It was his idea to re-invent allegory as a general pictorial language
of the arts where images would represent concepts (1766, p. 2), as it
is nature's original working to render things as images.
Despite his sad ending in a north Italian hotel room, Winckelmann was
rather successful in his other endeavours. Still one might argue if
(and when) "hypographein" became "hypertext". Winckelmann was certainly
highly influential in defending lateral thinking and graphical repre-
sentation within the domain of textual science (see my dissertation,
"Ein Bild der Welt. Die Voraussetzungen der anthropologischen Photo-
graphie," Constance, 1984, p. 175 et passim).

Thank you to you all for your inspiration and encouragement throughout
the last year.


Dr. Hartmut Krech
Bremen, Germany

Date: Wed, 21 Jan 1998 14:05:44 -0700
From: "James W. Johnston" <johnston@wordcruncher.com>
Subject: Interesting News on the WordCruncher Horizon ...

First, many thanks to all who contributed (both on and off list) to helping
me better understand the history of the book.

Second, for those who may find computer industry shenanigans a welcome break
from your more scholarly pursuits, WordCruncher has been in the news lately.
Take a look at http://www.wordcruncher.com for a bit of a chuckle!


James Johnston

WordCruncher Publishing Technologies, Inc.

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