16.623 Mind and Society vol 3, nr 5

From: Humanist Discussion Group (by way of Willard McCarty willard.mccarty@kcl.ac.uk)
Date: Thu Apr 17 2003 - 02:08:19 EDT

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                   Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 16, No. 623.
           Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London
                         Submit to: humanist@princeton.edu

             Date: Thu, 17 Apr 2003 07:06:10 +0100
             From: Willard McCarty <willard.mccarty@kcl.ac.uk>
             Subject: Mind and Society vol 3, nr 5

    Here follows the table of contents for the journal Mind and Society vol 3,
    nr 5. Enquiries about the journal should go to
    Fondazione Rosselli
    Via San Quintino 18/c
    10121 Torino

    Tel. +39 011 562 25 10
    Fax +39 011 56 11 748



    5, 2002, Vol. 3

    Daniel Kahneman: the Nobel Prize for Economics awarded for
    Decision-making psychology
    by R. Rumiati and N. Bonini

    Special Issue on "Scientific Discovery: Model-Based Reasoning"

    Preface by L. Magnani and N.J.

    Lorenzo Magnani
    Conjectures and Manipulations: External Representation in Scientific

    The paper illustrates the most important features of theoretical
    (sentential and model-based) and manipulative abductive reasoning in
    science. "Epistemic mediators", as external things and representations
    that play a basic cognitive role in reasoning processes, are introduced
    and described.

    Christian Haak
    The History of Models. Does It
    This paper investigates how model based reasoning functions in
    population biology. I argue that models play an important role in
    scientific discourse about a balance of nature, but this role has to be
    seen in a historical, philosophical, and social context.

    Luca Pezzullo
    Cheating Neuropsychologists: A Study of Cognitive Processes Involved
    in Scientific Anomalies
    This research is related to cognitive processes in scientific anomalies
    resolution. 40 experts were asked to explain 2 anomalous
    neuropsychological cases. The produced "reasoning blocks" were analyzed,
    to extract the inferential (deductive, inductive and abductive) and
    analogical processes used. From data seems to emerge a "cognitive
    switching", an unconscious alternation of inferential processes into a
    context of diffused ambiguity. The use of analogical and inferential
    reasoning in scientific anomalies resolution is also discussed.

    Susan G. Sterrett
    Physical Models and Fundamental Laws: Using One Piece of the World
    to Tell about

    The method of physical similarity, which provides the basis for
    inferences based upon the results of employing experimental scale
    models, is a qualitatively different way in which fundamental laws can
    be used in analogical reasoning that is truly informative.

    Lillian Hoddeson
    Toward a History-Based Model for Scientific Invention: Problem-Solving
    Practices in the Invention of the Transistor and the Development
    of the Theory of

    This paper examines problem-solving practices (including problem
    decomposition, analogy, bridging principles, teamwork, empirical
    tinkering) in scientific invention and discovery by studying two
    outstanding cases in twentieth-century physics - the invention of the
    transistor and the development of the theory of superconductivity.

    Sang Wook Yi
    The Nature of Model-Based Understanding in Condensed Matter Physics
    The paper studies the nature of theoretical 'understanding' in condensed
    matter physics, mediated by the successful employment of its models. I
    propose a two-stage account of model-based understanding of condensed
    matter physics: (1) understanding of a model and (2) matching a target
    phenomenon with a wellmotivated interpretative model of the model.

    Andrea Cerroni
    Discovering Relativity Beliefs: Towards a Socio-Cognitive Model
    for Einstein's Relativity Theory
    A socio-cognitive model of Albert Einstein's discovery is proposed,
    joining cognition and culture. Firstly, some orientative heuristics are
    traced in Einstein's fundamental publications: inner perfection,
    explain-orassume, explanatory correspondence, and covariance/invariance.
    Then, well-known abstractive heuristics as analogical and imagistic
    reasoning, thought experiment, limiting case analysis are shown
    occurring, too. A sketch of a model for such discovery is then presented
    following an idea of van Fraassen about discovery phases and the Humean
    distinction between beliefs and ideas.

    Francesco Amigoni, Viola Schiaffonati, Marco Somalvico
    Multiagent System Based Scientific Discovery within Information
    We present powerful and flexible information machines called agencies,
    which has been developed according to the multiagent paradigm within
    distributed artificial intelligence. We discuss, both from a theoretical
    and from a practical point of view, the roles they can play within
    scientific discovery. The incresing social character of scientific
    enterprise is addressed by agencies that both assist scientists in their
    activity and represent the products of their research.

    Nancy J. Nersessian
    Abstraction via Generic Modeling in Concept Formation in
    A central issue of creativity is how genuinely novel representations can
    be constructed from existing representations. It is argued that
    abstractive reasoning processes are one means and that the construction
    and application of 'generic' models is one significant kind of such
    reasoning. The analysis examines the role played by model construction
    and abstraction in James Clerk Maxwell's derivation of the
    electromagnetic field equations.

    Dr Willard McCarty | Senior Lecturer | Centre for Computing in the
    Humanities | King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS || +44 (0)20
    7848-2784 fax: -2980 || willard.mccarty@kcl.ac.uk

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